Diabetes, especially all the vessels in the body and is a disease that causes significant damage. It is the condition that occurs when the capillaries in the retina, which is the visual nerve layer of the eye, are affected in patients with diabetes. These small capillaries, red blood cells and coagulation cells as a result of changes in the retina can not be fed and oxygen-free.
Distortions occur in the vessel walls and increase in vessel permeability. This causes bleeding outside the vein, that is, retina and serum leakage. Low oxygen levels can lead to the formation of abnormal new vessels. These arteries cannot be as solid as the retina's own vessels, and the blood they carry can easily begin to leak from the walls.
Symptoms of Diabetic Retinopathy
Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most important curable causes of blindness in our country and in the world. Long-term and untreated diabetic disease, insulin-dependent diabetes in young patients, pregnancy, diabetes-related kidney damage and hypertension are the most important risk factors for diabetic retinopathy. However, the important information to keep in mind in diabetic patients is that early detection and treatment with modern devices under the guidance of experienced ophthalmologists is an effective prevention method against severe visual impairment. Therefore, it is vital that patients diagnosed with diabetes should consult a doctor for early retinal examination.
Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy
Patients diagnosed with diabetes should have an eye examination every year, even if they do not have any complaints. By dilating the pupil with a drop, the fundus is examined in detail for retinopathy. When diabetic retinopathy is detected, follow-up examinations are performed more frequently. If necessary, the structure of the vessels in the base of the eye is examined by giving medication from the forearm vein and the areas of retina that cannot be fed are determined. This procedure is called retinal angiography (fundus fluorescein angiography-FFA). Changes in visual center due to diabetes are easily evaluated by ocular tomography (OCT).
Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy
In order to avoid the progression of diabetic retinopathy, blood sugar, blood pressure and cholesterol levels of diabetics should be controlled. Diabetic retinopathy is treated with argon laser if necessary. This method is called scatter laser treatment. The aim of laser treatment is to help close the abnormal blood vessels. Treatment is usually completed in several sessions. Although there may be a decrease in the environmental vision after the treatment, the current vision level can be maintained with laser treatment. Laser treatment can cause faint vision and a slight decrease in night vision.
Laser treatment is more effective when abnormal blood vessels are administered before bleeding begins. For this reason, a detailed examination of the fundus should be performed regularly from the dilated pupil of the diabetic patients. Even if bleeding begins, laser treatment may still be possible, depending on the level of bleeding. Surgery may be required for advanced injuries and vitrectomy is planned for this surgery.
* For informational purposes only, consult your doctor for diagnosis and treatment